6. Mindset: A New Psychology of Success
What best explains the level of performance we achieve in a specific field? Our intelligence? Our innate gifts for that particular activity?
Today I want to share with you the response of Carol Dweck, professor of psychology at Stanford.
In his book “Changing mindset: A New Psychology of Success” (2006, original title: “Mindset: the new psychology of success”), it argues that the success is mainly due to the type of belief that we have. Some of us are convinced that our faculties are written in stone once and for all, while others believe that these same powers may be cultivated and grow.
In the first case, people are said to have a fixed mindset (fixed mindset), the second a development mindset (growth mindset).
The issue here is not who of one or the other are right, but emphasized that people with a fixed mindset have more difficulties in daring to initiate and persist in learning. Their performance is not experienced as the result of their actions, but as evidence of their intrinsic value. A bad result for them is evidence of their stupidity or their lack of ability and success can only prove to the world (and of course to themselves!) They are worth something.
These people are they then ready to great efforts to succeed in this they undertake? In fact, they tend to develop unhealthy behaviors to their learning:
– Considering the new experiences as a risk of failure, they prefer to stick with what they already mastered-and-now.
– Faced with a bad result, they seek excuses or blame others without asking what is their own responsibility.
– They consider that talented people must achieve good results immediately and avoid exertion (seen as clear evidence of a lack) quickly abandons or activities when these become more difficult.
– Sometimes they prefer to cheat rather than risk failure.
In contrast, people with developmental mindset see effort as a necessity to achieve a better result, accept their mistakes as a way to learn, leave less discouraged by a failure and are generally stubborn in their learning.
After Reading This Book, I Saw Myself in a Mirror … and … Not Necessarily the Right Side of the Mirror
Also according to Carol Dweck, we are not born with one or another of these states of mind, we adopt from a very young age as our experiences, especially in schools and within our families (see my article here showing how this fixed mindset can sneak up where we least expect it).
Our school system is indeed remarkably effective when it comes to spreading the fixed mindset. The notes are presented as an end in itself, some comments teachers categorize students into “good” and “bad”, the best preparatory classes loudly proclaim select only the most “intelligent” teens, etc …
In families, certain phrases form the soil in which the fixed mindset will grow and develop. And I’m not just talking about the negative phrases such as “You still dropped something, you’re really awkward,” no, compliments also fuel the fixed mindset if they describe the child such that he is. For example, telling a child “Oh, you clever ES” is perceived by the person who receives it as a compliment pressure to be and remain smart all the time.
The good news is that these states of mind can be changed, they are malleable. If you notice that your child has a preference for the fixed mindset, you can act. Formulate your encouragement and compliments emphasizing not the child’s qualities but the efforts it provided to achieve a good result, and so do bring your criticism about how he did it rather than its (so-called) clumsiness.
Examples of Sentences Favoring the Mood of Development Drawn From an Interview with Carol Dweck:
If your child is working a math problem:
“I am proud that you spend so much time on your math to make sure you understand the concepts”
“I noticed that you had spent a long time trying to solve this problem, I’m glad you give yourself so much trouble.”
“I appreciate you asking so many questions to understand what you have to do”
If your child tries for the first time a difficult task:
“I have the impression that you have chosen to reflect on this issue,”
“You do a good job in trying to find new solutions, I know you’ve never done this before”
And finally, here is a diagram showing the main points distinguishing the state of mind of the fixed mindset of development.
States of mind vs. Fixed Mindset Development
Diagram freely adapted from the book “Changing mindset: A New Psychology of Success” by Carol Dweck
5. Grey: Fifty Shades of Grey as Told by Christian
You dreamed? E.L James did! A new book finally released in July 2015 the famous 50 Shades of Grey. The only difference will be in terms of Christian Grey. It promises! The Christian perspective is … hot!
The news came a few days now. A new book 50 Shades of Grey … from the perspective of Christian Grey will emerge. This bomb made us jump for joy. Who could have imagined that a new 50 Shades of Grey is written? The adventures of Anastasia Steele and Christian have occupied us long days. This trilogy has accompanied us throughout our daily lives. This new volume, entitled “Grey: Fifty Shades of Grey as Told by Christian” will be as strong as we have announced, it will be told through the eyes of the shadowy billionaire. The US release date is fast approaching. Indeed, this fourth book will go on sale June 18 in the United States.
Anastasia Steele agrees to replace his sick roommate, Katherine , to interview the businessman and billionaire Christian Grey . Young seductive and mysterious CEO , it intimidates . To his surprise , Christian Grey comes to see the store where she works , claiming purchases. Very attracted to him , she will quickly become its subject. For that a contract will be drawn up to allow to define the rules of this dangerous game. However, this agreement is often a taboo subject and will be changed constantly . As their relationship progresses , the young and innocent Ana is facing a whole new world alongside wealthy entrepreneur . Christian , however, a dark side : he is a follower of BDSM . The woman must then decide whether it is ready or not to enter this universe. Are you as eager as us?
What a nice surprise to brighten our day! There is no question that the book so September 10 but it is expected two months ago! Yes, we will soon find Christian and Anastasia July 28 in French bookstores. Your summer will be hot and terribly sexy. So you can read it at the beach and increase a few degrees outside temperature. The French publisher JC Lattes Livres Hebdo told the reasons for the advanced output.
We must not “interfere title to those of the literary season,” according to them. We do not care the reason, we are just thrilled and excited to soon find the sexy Christian Grey and his point of view about his relationship with the gentle Anastasia Steele. What’s happening in his tormented mind? We’ll know soon! Meanwhile, discover unveiled the first promo video 50 Shades Darker. AORs girls, it’s a good surprise?
The reception from critics and readers vade mixed to negative. Most agree the lack of literary qualities of the text and the weakness psychologique qualified characters ectoplasms by some critics. Some, however, find the book rather enjoyable to read.
In response to the comparison with other erotic novels evoked by literary journalists and critics, EL James firmly recalls that “the stories of the Marquis de Sade are not love stories. My novel is a love story. “For her, Story of O “is not a love story. (…) It is a brutal book about a woman totally abused. “. Similarly, the French publisher confirms that it is “primarily a love story.”
A study in 2014 by psychologists at the University of Michigan, the trilogy deliver a subliminal message underlying that the heroine, Anastasia, voluntarily accepts domestic violence she suffered in her relationship with her partner also trivialization of violence in the couple, the story would stage a submissive victim, subject to Stockholm syndrome, whereby victims come to understand the motivations of their abusers and integrate.
Roman self-published on the Internet, originally Fifty Shades of Grey is discovered and published by Vintage Books and knows a huge trading success: in eighteen months, 40 million copies are sold, especially in the United States and the United Uni16. For 37 weeks, it is the first ranking of best-selling books published by the New York Times. If the audience is predominantly female, 20% of buyers in the United States in the first half of 2012 are men. In Italy, the success reached over 900,000 copies and 1.28 million vendus Australia.
In France, the publisher JC Lattes buys the copyrights to high prices and the profitability threshold fixed at 360 000 copies. The release, October 17, 2012, is based on a circulation of 550,000 copies, 350,000 are set up in bookstores on the first day. The December 11, 2012, the publisher announced that 400,300 novels have passed since its release and expects 450,000 copies sold by the end of 2012. To meet the competing publishers who hope to benefit from the success of the novel, JC Lattes in France filed the trademark “Fifty Shades”.
4. The Martian
Alone on Mars (original title: The Martian) is the first published novel by American author Andy Weir. Available as e-book from 2011, it appears first on paper and then in 2014 it is translated into other languages and published by editions the same year. The Martian is a science fiction novel to great realism (hard science fiction).
This novel is the story of an American NASA astronaut left for dead on Mars by his crew hurriedly left on Earth chased by a sandstorm. Mark Watney, a botanist and engineer, tinkering is to have enough food, energy and air and to reach a site located 3 200 km which expects a rocket that might allow him to join the Earth. The novel is the story of this epic solo written in the first person. The story is set in the near future: the mission to which participates the hero is very close to Mars exploration scenarios considered today by NASA as Mars Direct.
After an unsuccessful first contact with publishers, the novel is put online by its author on its website in 2011. A version marketed on Amazon.com online retailer’s site to a floor price (99 cents), meets a big success. This attracts the attention of publishers and Andy Weir sells the rights to Crown Publishing Group.
The novel won the Japanese prices Seiun best foreign novel of science fiction for 2015. The novel is the subject of a film adaptation with the same name. The film was released in October 2015 and directed by Ridley Scott, starring Matt Damon in the lead role.
The story is usually very close to the scenarios for a manned mission to Mars. The technical aspects are dealt with accurately and description of Mars reflects what we know. But the author admits errors for some volunteers to fan the dramatic tension of récit.
Contrary to what is stated in the narrative winds of about 150 km / h on Mars is not able to pull the dish that strikes the astronaut nor could swing a spacecraft because the atmospheric pressure on the surface of Mars is about 170 times weaker than on Earth and the force of the wind is substantially proportional to atmospheric pressure, even if the gravity of Mars, about three times less than that of the Earth decreases by especially the stability of the ground (including vessel).
Similarly, the author describes a sudden tearing of the habitat in which the hero lives. The underlying cause is the wear of the fabric that is the habitat due to a storm and the repeated use of a pressurized airlock beyond its expected life. The rules applied by NASA engineers and companies that manufacture materials used in space exploration are described as dramatic break in the narrative is highly unlikely.
Indeed, the fabrics are made of fibers of different types, of different sizes and different orientations. The aim is, for obvious safety reasons, that fiber breakage occurs gradually as the stress on the fabric increase (or that it deteriorates) and thus, it starts to escape well before the total breakdown of all fibers.